Pet Minimally Invasive Procedures

Learn more about Minimally Invasive Procedures below.


Endoscopy is a technique for performing procedures through natural openings in the body using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy is useful for removing foreign bodies, examining the lining of inner organs, obtaining biopsies. Common uses of endoscopy include esophagoscopy (esophagus), bronchoscopy (airways and lungs), gastroscopy (stomach), colonoscopy (colon), and cystoscopy (bladder).


Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity. Thoracoscopy may be performed either under general anesthesia or under sedation with local anesthetic.


In an arthroscopic examination, the surgeon makes a small incision in the patient’s skin and then inserts the arthroscope. Light is transmitted through fiber optics to the end of the arthroscope that is inserted into the joint. By attaching the arthroscope to a miniature video camera, the surgeon is able to see the interior of the joint through this very small incision rather than a large incision needed for surgery. The image is magnified up to 20x.

Disease and injuries can damage joints. Some of the most frequent conditions found during arthroscopic examinations of the joints in dogs are:

Frequent Findings

  • Loose bodies of bone and cartilage: OCD (Osteochondrosis / Osteochondtritis Dissecans) of the knee, shoulder, elbow, ankle (hock)
  • Inflammation: Acute and Chronic Synovitis – inflamed lining (synovium) in knee (stifle), shoulder, elbow, or hip
  • Bursitis: Inflammation of a sac-like structure that surrounds ligament
  • Shoulder: OCD, inflammation or tears of the bicipital tendon, rotator cuff injuries
  • Knee: Cranial cruciate ligament tears with instability, meniscal (fibrocartilage) tears, chondromalacia (softening, wearing or injury of cartilage)
  • Elbow: OCD, UAP and FCP associated with elbow dysplasia
  • Hip: Tearing of the ligaments or joint capsule, cartilage damage